Arthropod-borne Infection

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Numerically speaking mosquitoes are probably responsible for more disease than any other group of arthropods but other insects too are of great importance. While Anopheles mosquitoes carry malaria, various viral infections and some types of filariasis, other viruses and filarias are transmitted by culicines. Other biting flies transmit African trypano­somiasis, leishmaniasis, bartonellosis and several other kinds of filariasis. Fleas carry a species of typhus and plague, lice carry epidemic typhus, and mites and ticks other varieties of typhus. Ticks are also responsible for transmission of the haemorrhagic and the relapsing fevers. The arthropod vectors of disease are classified in Table I.

arthropod vectors of disease

The important arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses considered here are yellow fever. Southeast Asian haemorrhagic fever and Japanese В encephalitis. These are representative of the arbovirus diseases which include many other infections of man in the tropics (see Table II). Of the Rickettsioses, louse-borne typhus due to R. prowazeki is potentially the most important, but tick typhus is fairly common in some areas (eg East Africa) and mite-borne scrub typhus (tsutsu-gamushi disease) in South­east Asia and the Southwest Pacific.

the clinically recognised arboviruses of man

Plague is still endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas, and localised outbreaks are not uncommon especially in war situations, eg Vietnam, where there has been an increase in recent years. Relapsing fever in Africa and Bartonellosis (Carrion's disease) are geographically limited in extent.

Among the protozoal infections, African trypanosomiasis is increasing both in West and East Africa but, in numerical terms, is still mainly of importance for its effect on domestic animals. South American trypano­somiasis (Chagas' disease) extends through much of the sub-continent and appears to be responsible for considerable morbidity in parts of its distribution. Malaria and leishmaniasis are widespread and cause severe morbidity and mortality in many countries.

Of the tissue filariases, those due to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may produce serious deformity, while the skin dwelling parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, causes blindness in parts of tropical Africa and Central America.

While the diagnosis of the viral and bacterial infections must be confirmed by appropriate serological and cultural techniques, the protozoal and helminthic infections are readily recognised, if not on clinical grounds alone, then by fairly simple techniques designed to demonstrate the presence of the actual causative parasites.

» Yellow Fever
» Dengue
» Southeast asian haemorrhagic fever
» Japanese B encephalitis
» Louse-borne Typhus
» Scrub Typhus
» Tick Typhus
» Q Fever
» Plaque
» The relapsing fevers
» Bartonellosis (Carrions disiease)
» Malaria
» Babesiasis in Man
» African Trypanosomiasis
» Chagas disease
» Leishmaniasis
» Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar, Dum-Dum Fever, Black Sickness)
» Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
» New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
» Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
» Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)
» Nematodes the filariases
» Loaiasis
» Onchocerciasis
» Other Filariases

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