Leishmaniasis — photos

Symptoms and syndromes in photos

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Life cycle of Leishmania in mammalian host.

Photo 1. Life cycle of Leishmania in mammalian host. Amastigotes (Leishman- Donovan bodies) enter phagocytes of the lymphoid-macrophage system. They reproduced by binary fission forming a mass of daughter cells in each host cell. Note the nucleus and minute flagellum in the parasites shown in this smear from a cutaneous lesion. (x 900) 

Parasites in tissue culture.

Photo 2. Parasites in tissue culture. In tissue culture (dog sarcoma) L. mexicana can be seen in vacuoles in the host cells. (x 900)

Sandfty larva.

Photo 3. Sandfty larva. Leishmania are transmitted by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World and Far East, and Lutzomyia in the New World. The photograph shows the larva of P. perfiliewi which is a vector of leishmaniasis in Southern Europe. In dry areas the larvae occupy cracks and crevices which provide a humid, cool, microclimate. Forest species possibly prefer leaf mould on the forest floor. (x 10)

Pupa of L. longipalpis.

Photo 4. Pupa of L. longipalpis. Lutzomyia longipalpis transmits visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. (x 10)

Adult female L. longipalpis biting (Natural size)

Photo 5. Adult female L. longipalpis biting (Natural size)

Closeup view of L. longipalpis.

Photo 6. Closeup view of L. longipalpis (x 10)

Promastigotes in vector

Photo 7. Promastigotes in vector.

In the midgut of the poikilothermic vector amasti­gotes transform to promastigotes which then divide asexually. The new promasti­gotes become attached to cuticle-lined parts of the gut such as the oesophageal valve indicated by the arrows. From here promastigotes pass into the pharynx and proboscis through which they are injected into a new host when the fly next feeds. They then transform back to amastigotes in the warm-blooded vertebrate host. (X1250)

Reaction to sandfly bites.

Photo 8. Reaction to sandfly bites.

A persistent macule appears at the site of each bite even from an uninfected fly. This may be the starting point of the lesion in simple cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Ultrastructure of amastigotes.

Photo 9. Ultrastructure of amastigotes. Leishmanial amastigotes are seen within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell. (x 30000)

Cycle in man, animals and sandflies.

Photo 10. Cycle in man, animals and sandflies.

Promastigotes ( 1 ) of various Leishmania species enter the skin of a vertebrate host (B) when the sandfly (A) bites, and transform into amastigotes which are phagocytosed by macrophages (II). In the macrophages the amastigotes divide (III), finally rupturing the host cell. They then enter either macrophages of the reticuloendothelial organs (IV) or of the skin

(V) where they continue to divide. Some parasites circulate in mononuclear macrophages of the blood, and are picked up in these, or with skin macrophages

(VI) when another sandfly bites. In the fly (A) they transform into promastigotes in the midgut, then migrate forward or backward (depending upon the species of Leishmania) to attach to the gut wall and multiply as promastigotes. Finally, they migrate forward to the pharynx and proboscis (VIII) from which they enter the skin of a new vertebrate host when the fly takes another meal. {See also 166-168, 173, 180, 184, 186,212.)



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