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Photo 1. Talls of microfilariae T. streptocerca and O. volvulus. T. streptocerca (1), another skin dwelling unsheathed microfilaria must be distinguished from that of O. volvulus (2) in African patients. For this a stained preparation should be examined, eg with haematoxylin. T. streptocerca produces few pathogenic effects. It is transmitted by Culicoides grahami, also infects chimpanzees, and is only known in Africa, (x 900)
Photo 2. Talls of microfilariae T. streptocerca and O. volvulus too.
Photo 3. Microfilaria of Mansonella ozzardi. This unsheathed microfilaria (right) is found in the blood in parts of South America and the Caribbean. The microfilaria is readily distinguished from the larger and sheathed microfilaria of W. bancrofti (left) which also occurs in parts of South America. Vague symptoms of various types have been attributed to infection with the parasite which is also transmitted by Culicoides spp. (x500)
Photo 4. Eosinophilic lung. This is a peculiar allergic reaction to filarial infections of animal origin. It occurs principally in Southeast Asia and particularly affects Indians. The condition is characterised by nocturnal cough and bronchospasm, with transient shadows in the lungs.
Photo 5. Eosinophilia. Eosinophilia is very marked and the condition responds well to specific filaricides. A typical leucocyte response to healing with diethylcarbamazine is shown. H = Diethylcarbamazine (Hetrazan); E = eosinophils/cu.mm; D = days.
See also: Nematodes — the filariases.
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» Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)
» Nematodes in the filariases
» Other Filariases